Examples of Picot Questions

Examples of Picot Questions: Clinicians and nurses often come across impressive treatment results in their practice. Nurses and clinicians may opt to improve or explore their experience by researching the finding they get from personal experiences. It is common to begin research queries using an evidence-based practice framework based on well-constructed PICOT questions.

What is PICO or PICOT?

The word PICOT is an association of letters derived from the elements of a clinical research question. PICOT stands for

P-Patient,

I– Intervention,

C-Comparison

O– Outcome and

T– Time.

The PICOT process starts with a case scenario, and the question is formulated to elicit an answer.

In other words, a clinical and nursing research question topic should:

  1. Identify the patient or population intended to study.

Who or what is the patient, population, or problem in question?

  1. State intervention treatment planned to be used.

What is the intervention (action or treatment) being considered?

  1. Comparison of one intervention to another (if applicable)

Which other interventions should be considered?

  1. The outcome we anticipate,

What objective or outcome is desired or expected?

  1. Time frame (if applicable/ Optional)

How long will it take to reach the anticipated outcome?

Examples of Picot Questions

In African American female adolescents with hepatitis B (P), how does acetaminophen (I) compared to ibuprofen (C) affect liver function (O)? (Time is optional).

For women who use birth control methods (P), how do birth control pills (I) compare to IUD (C) in managing optimal body weight(O)?

Is phenylketonuria {PKU} test (I) done on two-week-old infants (P) more accurate in the diagnosis of inborn errors in metabolism (O) compared with PKU tests done at 24 hours of age (C)? Time is implied at two weeks and 24 hours old?

In middle-aged men with suspected myocardial infarction (P), are serial 12-lead ECGs (I) compared with one initial 12-lead ECG (C) more precise in identifying an acute myocardial infarction (O)?

In autistic children (P), how does the consumption of wheat (I) compares to the consumption of vegetable (C) in reducing gut reaction? (O)

Are teenagers (P) who have overweight adoptive parents (I) at bigger risk for obesity (O) compared with kids (P) without overweight adoptive parents (C) during the ages of 10 and eighteen years (T)?

Are 40- to 50- year old women (P) who have hypertension (I) compared with those without hypertension e (C) at increased risk for a heart attack (O) during the first year after angioplasty (T)?

Picot Questions for Pediatrics

Among term/near term newborn infants born to mothers with risk factors for neonatal infection (P), does the use of immediate prophylactic antibiotic (I), compared to selective use of antibiotics (C) have an impact on neonatal mortality and/or on neonatal sepsis (O)?

In low-birth-weight/pre-term neonates in health facilities (P), are plastic wraps or caps used immediately after birth (I) more effective than conventional care (C) in preventing hypothermia (O)?

For young infants (0-2 months) with suspected sepsis managed in health facilities (P), should third-generation cephalosporin monotherapy (I) replace the currently recommended ampicillin-gentamicin combination (C) as first-line empiric treatment for preventing death and sequelae (O)?

In children with acute severe malnutrition (P), are antibiotics (I) effective in preventing death and sequelae (O)?

Among healthy newborn infants in low- and middle-income countries (P), does early skin-to-skin contact of the baby with the mother in the first hour of life (I) compared with drying and wrapping (C) have an impact on neonatal mortality, hypothermia or initiation/exclusivity/ duration of breastfeeding (O)?

Is the usage of intravenous fluid intervention a better remedy for infants under fatal circumstances?

For kids suffering from urinary Trach infection what is the most effective way of cutting down the oxygen saturation levels during oxygen therapy?

Among children between 2 and 3 months old, what is the best way of giving oxygen during the process of oxygenation?

For conscious children suffering from hypoglycemia, does controlling the amount of sublingual sugar help completely? 

PICO Questions for Nursing Research

Find Also: List of Research Topics for Nursing Students

With patients over the age of 60 years is negative therapy wound pressure a better therapy when compared to a standard moist?

COPD patients what are probable after effects, in the form of bruises and other injuries, of herapin injection therapy?

For middle-aged women is the ingestion of zinc pills more effective than Vitamin C for preventing cold during winter?

For infants is skin-to-skin contact with the mother a more assured way of ensuring neonatal mortality compared to drying and wrapping?

During bleeding in a neonate is vitamin K prophylaxis effective in preventing Vitamin K deficiency?

Amongst patients awaiting cardiac operation do the roles of a pre-surgery cardiac nurse prevent depression?

Among school-going children is medical intervention a proper way of dealing with childhood obesity?

In public schools can a nurse-led presentation of mental health associated with bullying help in combating such tendencies?

For adult men over the age of 70 years what are the effects of adding beta-blockers for lowering blood pressure?

Amongst children with sepsis, what are the measurable effects of extending ICU stays and antibiotic consumption amongst children with sepsis?

Amongst patients who are suffering from chronic diseases does psychological intervention help increase self-confidence?

For patients who are suffering from asthma, what are the effects of IVF bolus in controlling the amount of Magnesium Sulfate?

Among 20-30 years old women in the UK does the increase in the intake of oral contraceptives increase the chances of breast cancer?

In patients who are recovering from neck cancer, Is yoga an effective medical therapy in the reduction of lymphedema?

Do women, between the age of 25 and 40 years, who takes regular oral contraceptives at greater risk of blood clots when compared to the women in the same age group who avoid oral contraceptives? 

Picot Question for Pain Management

For patients who are slowly coming out from their anesthesia Does music therapy an effective mode of PACU pain management?

For adults over the age of 50 years, is fentanyl more effective than morphine in dealing with the pain?

Does the use of pain relief medication throughout the process of the surgery reduce the pain more effectively when compared to the intake of the same medicine given post-surgery?

Conclusion: Examples of Picot Questions

To develop some good PICOT questions researchers must recognize a need or a reason for the study. The search for high-quality clinical research evidence can be overwhelming to many. However, by utilizing the PICOT or PICO format researchers can streamline their research process. As result, one will be able to produce the best existing evidence to support clinical decisions and explore alternative treatments and procedures.

Sources:

World Health Organization, List of PICO questions, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK138330/

Northern Arizona University, Evidence Based Practice, https://libraryguides.nau.edu/